New Delhi: Afro-Asian-American Chamber of Commerce Occupational Research and Development, 2016. In the 18th and 19th centuries, many Basques came to Chile where they integrated into the existing elites of Castilian origin. Bill Kte'pi, "Chile", in Robert E. Emery. Patagonia extends from within Reloncavi, at the height of parallel 41°S, to the south. Serving as a sort of frontier garrison, the colony found itself with the mission of forestalling encroachment by both the Mapuche and Spain's European enemies, especially the English and the Dutch. This includes Chilote mythology, Rapa Nui mythology and Mapuche mythology. [19] Ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such. [107], In 1984, a study called Sociogenetic Reference Framework for Public Health Studies in Chile, from the Revista de Pediatría de Chile determined an ancestry of 67.9% European, and 32.1% Native American. In Chile, education begins with preschool until the age of 5. Their waters mainly flow from Andean snowmelt in the summer and winter rains. The Atacama Desert, in the north of the country, is the driest place on earth. For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer (December to March), and mainly in the coastal beach towns. This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 10:33. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometres (291,930 sq mi) and has a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. The Andes, split in two and whose eastern arm runs Bolivia, has a high altitude and volcanic activity, which has allowed the formation of the Andean altiplano and salt structures as the Salar de Atacama, due to the gradual accumulation of sediments over time. Because of the Atacama desert, in the Norte Grande there are only short endorheic character streams, except for the Loa River, the longest in the country 440 km. Hospitals in Chile are mainly located in the Santiago Metropolitan Region. Chile slowly started to expand its influence and to establish its borders. In the 2005 parliamentary election, both leading parties, the Christian Democrats and the UDI lost representation in favor of their respective allies Socialist Party (which became the biggest party in the Concertación block) and National Renewal in the right-wing alliance. The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th-century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, which was greatly influenced by family politics and the Roman Catholic Church. It was just a depression accumulated marine sediments began to rise at the end of the Mesozoic, 66 million years ago, due to the collision between the Nazca and South American plates, resulting in the Andes. The attempt was also made to The United States but failed badly in October 1880. Francisco Hurtado, Governor of the province of Chiloé, conducted a census in 1784 and found the population consisted of 26,703 inhabitants, 64.4 percent of whom were whites and 33.5 percent of whom were natives. Chile, which claims a part of the Antarctic continent, is the longest country on earth. Corruption in Chile In December 2005 the mayor of Quillota , Luis Mella (Christian Democrat), alleged the government's Job-Making Program (PGE) paid political allies for work that was not performed. Chile is a World Bank high-income economy with high living standards. It is geographically positioned both in the Western and Southern hemispheres. Chilean education is segregated by wealth in a three-tiered system – the quality of the schools reflect socioeconomic backgrounds: Upon successful graduation of secondary school, students may continue into higher education. A 1999 law on religion prohibits religious discrimination. Chile is an agricultural paradise whose bounty of fruits and vegetables supplies the world’s marketplaces and whose wine graces tables on every continent. [154][155][156], Chile has the highest degree of economic freedom in South America (ranking 7th worldwide), owing to its independent and efficient judicial system and prudent public finance management. [123] European migration did not result in a significant change in the ethnic composition of Chile, except in the region of Magellan. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia. Chile hosted the first FIBA World Championship for Women in 1953 finishing the tournament with the silver medal. [172] Under the compulsory private pension system, most formal sector employees pay 10 percent of their salaries into privately managed funds. It settled all its territorial disputes with Argentina during the 1990s except for part of the border at Southern Patagonian Ice Field. Many Hispanic Americans use "chile.". 179-80. a 16-year right-wing military dictatorship, lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, drain on the treasury of the Viceroyalty of Peru, Chile was proclaimed an independent republic, colonizing Llanquihue with German immigrants, Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina, Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Andrés Sabella Gálvez International Airport, Presidente Carlos Ibáñez del Campo International Airport, Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport, the historical district of the port city of Valparaíso, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "SOCIAL PROGRESS INDEX 2015 : EXECUTIVE SUMMARY", "Human and income poverty: developing countries", "La Incógnita Sobre el Origen de la Palabra Chile", "People roamed tip of South America 18,500 years ago", "Development and Breakdown of Democracy, 1830–1973", "Allende wins the elections: first coup attempt", "Report on CIA Chilean Task Force activities", "Covert Action In Chile 1963–1973, Staff Report Of The Select Committee To Study Governmental Operations With Respect To Intelligence Activities", "Equipo Nizkor – CIA Activities in Chile – September 18, 2000", "Transition to Democracy in Latin America: The Role of the judiciary", "KISSINGER AND CHILE: THE DECLASSIFIED RECORD", "Ministerio del Interior, Programa de Derechos Humanos – ddhh_rettig", Chile Recognizes 9,800 More Pinochet Victims, "Political Mass Mobilization against Authoritarian Rule: Pinochet's Chile, 1983–88", "Man in the News: Patricio Aylwin; A Moderate Leads Chile", "Chile elects new leader Late president's son wins big", "Moderate socialist Lagos wins Chilean presidential election", "Chile protests: More than one million bring Santiago to a halt", "One month on: Protests in Chile persist despite gov't concessions", "Polls open in Chile for historic constitutional plebiscite", "President Lagos: We can make a greater effort to make yesterday's and today's trials equally just", "Election (13 May 2010) Human Rights Council", "Chad, Chile, Lithuania, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia were elected to serve on the UN Security Council", "Chile, Peru, and the ICJ Boundary Settlement", "Court Grants Peru Ocean Territory Claimed by Chile", Chile: Ciudades, Pueblos, Aldeas y Caseríos 2005, "Chilean Army Commander-in-Chief Visits WJPC", "Almirante Julio Leiva Nuevo Comandante en Jefe de la Armada", "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. In 2005, tourism grew by 13.6 percent, generating more than 4.5 billion dollars of which 1.5 billion was attributed to foreign tourists. It has been relatively free of the coups and arbitrary governments that have blighted the continent. city schools (colegios municipales) that are mostly free and have the worst education results, mostly attended by poor students; subsidized schools that receive some money from the government which can be supplemented by fees paid by the student's family, which are attended by mid-income students and typically get mid-level results; and. Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. In the same census of 2012, 17% of Chileans reported adherence to an Evangelical church ("Evangelical" in the census referred to all Christian denominations other than the Roman Catholic and Orthodox—Greek, Persian, Serbian, Ukrainian, and Armenian—churches, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons, Seventh-day Adventists, and Jehovah's Witnesses: essentially, those denominations generally still termed "Protestant" in most English-speaking lands, although Adventism is often considered an Evangelical denomination as well). Viña del Mar, Valparaíso's more affluent northern neighbor, is popular because of its beaches, casino, and its annual song festival, the most important musical event in Latin America. In 2008, Peru took Chile to court over their maritime disputes. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. [36][page needed] Much of the banking sector was nationalized. [citation needed]. The United States and Chile have had a long, dynamic relationship. After Pinochet obtained rule of the country, several hundred committed Chilean revolutionaries joined the Sandinista army in Nicaragua, guerrilla forces in Argentina or training camps in Cuba, Eastern Europe and Northern Africa.[53]. It is bounded on the north by Peru and Bolivia, on the east by Argentina, and on … Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. [27], The commander in chief of the Chilean Army is General Humberto Oviedo Arriagada. Then, they choose a branch: scientific humanistic education, artistic education, or technical and professional education. It is most common in Spanish-speaking areas of the US. On the slopes of the Andes, in addition to the scattered tola desert brush, grasses are found. These cultural sites are the Rapa Nui National Park (1995), the Churches of Chiloé (2000), the historical district of the port city of Valparaíso (2003), Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (2005) and the mining city Sewell (2006). [citation needed] Pichilemu in the O'Higgins Region is widely known as South America's "best surfing spot" according to Fodor's. A national junta in the name of Ferdinand – heir to the deposed king – was formed on 18 September 1810. The Incas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche (or Araucanians as they were known by the Spaniards) successfully resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization. It is situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire. [62], Chile achieved global recognition for the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners in 2010. Chile actively participated in Operation Condor. German is still spoken to some extent in southern Chile,[148] either in small country side pockets or as a second language among the communities of larger cities. In the following decades, marked milestones The deck of Death (or The Enigma of Lord Street) (1916), considered the first film of a Chilean story, The transmission of presidential (1920), the first animated film in the country, and North and South (1934), the first sound film of Chile. Chile, The Unlikely Long-Term Home of a Large Palestinian Community", Estimación de Población Extranjera en Chile, al 31 de diciembre de 2019, "Chile: Moving Towards a Migration Policy", "El debate sobre la inmigración ilegal se extiende a la región", "Population 15 years of age or older, by religion, region, sex and age groups. [38] Started under former President Frei, the Popular Unity platform also called for nationalization of Chile's major copper mines in the form of a constitutional amendment. [11][12] It is among South America's most economically and socially stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. [160] Overall, Chile produces a third of the world's copper. [35] Joint public-private public works projects helped reduce unemployment. [27], Conquest took place gradually, and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks. [165] There are reported labor shortages in agriculture, mining, and construction. [19], Since its return to democracy in 1990, Chile has been an active participant in the international political arena. [13] It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, and democratic development. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Pacific Alliance, and joined the OECD in 2010. ; If you click on the title of the chart, the chart will open in a new tab. Chile is home to the world renowned Patagonian Trail that resides on the border between Argentina and Chile. [116], The 1907 census reported 101,118 Natives, or 3.1% of the total population. In 1999 the Cultural Heritage Day was established as a way to honour and commemorate Chiles cultural heritage. [181] The bus system covers the entire country, from Arica to Santiago (a 30-hour journey) and from Santiago to Punta Arenas (about 40 hours, with a change at Osorno). In September 2005, President Ricardo Lagos signed into law several constitutional amendments passed by Congress. Summary. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Chile is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered. Few freshwater fish are native, but North American trout have been successfully introduced into the Andean lakes. To the south, the Cordillera de la Costa reappears in the range of Nahuelbuta while glacial sediments originate a series of lakes in the area of La Frontera. However, this perspective has also been criticised for underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production in other parts of the world. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. [103] In the high valleys, wetland areas generate Chungará Lake, located at 4500 meters above sea level. The northern Atacama Desert contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates. Among the coastal mountains and the Pacific is a series of coastal plains, of variable length, which allow the settlement of coastal towns and big ports. A Chilean court decision in November 2009 considered to be a landmark ruling on indigenous rights and made use of the convention. [14] Currently it also has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. A long and narrow coastal Southern Cone country on the west side of the Andes Mountains, Chile stretches over 4,300 km (2,670 mi) north to south, but only 350 km (217 mi) at its widest point east to west. The two countries maintain consular relations and are represented at the Consul General level. [nb 3]. Spanish attempts to re-impose arbitrary rule during what was called the Reconquista led to a prolonged struggle, including infighting from Bernardo O'Higgins, who challenged Carrera's leadership. Chile is a long narrow country which extends like a ribbon down the west coast of South America. The war over how to spell New Mexico’s most valuable vegetable crop continues to rage for the head of the Chile Pepper Institute at New Mexico State University. [108][109] In 1994, a biological study determined that the Chilean composition was 64% European and 35% Amerindian. While a Spanish colony and as a new nation, Chile’s distance from the East Coast of the United States impeded extensive interaction because ships had to sail around Cape Horn, the southern tip of South America, to reach Chile’s primary seaport, Valparaíso. [191][192] Gabriela Mistral was the first Latin American to receive a Nobel Prize in Literature (1945). Many enterprises within the copper, coal, iron, nitrate, and steel industries were expropriated, nationalized, or subjected to state intervention. CABI, 2008. [6] The capital and largest city is Santiago and the national language is Spanish. The Chilean Government has formed a Council on Innovation and Competition, hoping to bring in additional FDI to new parts of the economy. After Pinochet's defeat in the 1988 plebiscite, the constitution was amended to ease provisions for future amendments to the Constitution. [40] In addition, US financial pressure restricted international economic credit to Chile. The capital and largest city is Santiago and the national language is Spanish. Each time the Mapuche and other native groups revolted, the southern border of the colony was driven northward. The cold temperatures and winds of the extreme south preclude heavy forestation. The Mapuche make up 12% of Chile's population but are not recognised in the country's constitution. Chile Coronavirus update with statistics and graphs: total and new cases, deaths per day, mortality and recovery rates, current active cases, recoveries, trends and timeline. 7,853,428 out of 11,226,309 people over 15 years of age. Some areas of the plains territories encompass territory east of the Andes, and the Patagonian steppes and Magellan, or are high plateaus surrounded by high mountain ranges, such as the Altiplano or Puna de Atacama. This area is also the historical center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions. [85][86] The Chilean Army is 45,000 strong and is organized with an Army headquarters in Santiago, six divisions throughout its territory, an Air Brigade in Rancagua, and a Special Forces Command in Colina. Then later in 2014, the International Court of Justice's ruling resulted in Chile losing 80 miles from Northwestern ocean zone. The average rainfall there is less than 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) per year. Chile has a telecommunication system which covers much of the country, including Chilean insular and Antarctic bases. [164] The current account deficit was 4% in the first quarter of 2013, financed mostly by foreign direct investment. [119], Chile is one of 22 countries to have signed and ratified the only binding international law concerning indigenous peoples, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989. Late Paleozoic, 251 million years ago, Chile belonged to the continental block called Gondwana. Chile also took delivery in 2007 of a number of reconditioned Block 15 F-16s from the Netherlands, bringing to 18 the total of F-16s purchased from the Dutch. Despite royal prohibitions, relations remained strained from continual colonialist interference. [73] Chile hosted the Defense Ministerial of the Americas in 2002 and the APEC summit and related meetings in 2004. Agnostics and atheist were estimated at 25% of the population. [17] The older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". San Pedro de Atacama is host to the annual "Atacama Crossing", a six-stage, 250-kilometre (160 mi) footrace which annually attracts about 150 competitors from 35 countries. [97] 1 [28], Cut off to the north by desert, to the south by the Mapuche, to the east by the Andes Mountains, and to the west by the ocean, Chile became one of the most centralized, homogeneous colonies in Spanish America. Download Grammarly's app to help with eliminating grammar errors and finding the right words. Beneficiaries can also opt for more costly private insurance through Isapre. Chile had joined the stand as one of the high-income countries in South America by 1870.[30]. During the last glaciation, this area was covered by ice that strongly eroded Chilean relief structures. The Congress of Chile has a 38-seat Senate and a 120-member Chamber of Deputies. There are many accepted versions and the dictionary lists the main three: chile, chili, and chilli. Surfing is popular at some coastal towns. Chile . [160] Codelco, the state mining firm, competes with private copper mining companies. The earthquake was also followed by multiple aftershocks. Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations. German migrants influenced the Bavarian style rural architecture and cuisine in the south of Chile in cities such as Valdivia, Frutillar, Puerto Varas, Osorno, Temuco, Puerto Octay, Llanquihue, Faja Maisan, Pitrufquén, Victoria, Pucón and Puerto Montt.[183][184][185][186][187]. This was Chile's sixth presidential election since the end of the Pinochet era. Industrial output increased sharply and unemployment fell during the Allende administration's first year.[36]. [59][60] In January 2010, Chileans elected Sebastián Piñera as the first rightist President in 20 years, defeating former President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle of the Concertación, for a four-year term succeeding Bachelet. [96], In southern Chile, south of the Biobío River, heavy precipitation has produced dense forests of laurels, magnolias, and various species of conifers and beeches, which become smaller and more stunted to the south. Most of the traditions of the culture of Chile have a festive purpose, but some, such as dances and ceremonies, have religious components. These islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific Ocean.[95]. Its rate of population growth has been decreasing since 1990, due to a declining birth rate. The intermediate depression reappears becoming a fertile valley that allows agricultural development and human settlement, due to sediment accumulation. The 2011 Latinobarómetro survey asked respondents in Chile what race they considered themselves to belong to. The first general census was conducted by the government of Agustín de Jáuregui between 1777 and 1778; it indicated that the population consisted of 259,646 inhabitants: 73.5 percent of European descent, 7.9 percent mestizos, 8.6 percent indigenous peoples and 9.8 percent blacks. Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Spanish Empire. Chileans voted in the first round of presidential elections on 17 November 2013. The decisions were accomplished on 27 January 1839 by the International Court of Justice[74] This became the War of the Pacific which was in the years 1879–1883. [111] Another genetic study conducted by the University of Brasilia in several American countries shows a similar genetic composition for Chile, with a European contribution of 51.6%, an Amerindian contribution of 42.1%, and an African contribution of 6.3%. In June 2005, Chile completed a nationwide overhaul of its criminal justice system. [143][144], The patron saints of Chile are Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Saint James the Greater (Santiago). for travel or flights In the immediate vicinity of Chile are countries such as Argentina, Uruguay & Paraguay. [188] The national dance is the cueca. A "chili" (American English) or "chilli" (British English) is a type of pepper. The current lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, contains 67 members of the governing center-left coalition, 48 from the center-right opposition and 5 from small parties or independents. [96] Owing to the vicinity of the Humboldt Current, ocean waters abound with fish and other forms of marine life, which in turn support a rich variety of waterfowl, including several penguins. but Wesleyan, Lutheran, Anglican, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, other Reformed, Baptist, and Methodist churches also are present amongst Chilean Evangelical churches. GDP expanded by 5 percent in 2007. The Supreme Court decision on Aymara water rights upheld rulings by both the Pozo Almonte tribunal and the Iquique Court of Appeals, and marks the first judicial application of ILO Convention 169 in Chile. Jorge Alessandri succeeded Ibáñez del Campo in 1958, bringing Chilean conservatism back into power democratically for another term. [117] In 2002 a census took place, directly asking the public whether they considered themselves as part of any of the eight Chilean ethnic groups, regardless of whether or not they maintained their culture, traditions and language, and 4.6 percent of the population (692,192 people) fitted that description of indigenous peoples in Chile. At the end of his term, Frei had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals.[27]. Neighboring countries include Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. These include eliminating the positions of appointed senators and senators for life, granting the President authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces, and reducing the presidential term from six to four years.[68]. The existence of rivers flowing through the territory allows the formation of transverse valleys, where agriculture has developed strongly in recent times, while the coastal plains begin to expand. Buccaneers and pirates menaced the colony in addition to the Mapuche, as was shown by Sir Francis Drake's 1578 raid on Valparaíso, the colony's principal port. [citation needed], The Central Bank of Chile in Santiago serves as the central bank for the country. 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