As Frankopan’s narrative makes clear, the history of the world can be told as a story of trade. Silk Road Class 11 | NCERT Solution Class 11 Chapter 8 Summary, Video explanation, Question Answer. This caused a decrease in population that devastated Europe because of its lack of resources. The Byzantine Empire and Persian Empire were no more than shadows of their former glory. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. The story is about the trek that the author took with Tsetan, a guide and his mate Daniel from Ravu to Mount Kailash to do ‘kora’ (Buddhist spiritual practice/ritual). But this plan didn’t work, since Americans were more like the British than they thought. He writes: “The Silk Roads do not start or have an end point, because they are not actually real roads at all. These events and headlines in a way encapsulate the pattern of The New Silk Roads by Peter Frankopan. The Xian municipality commissioned a red sandstone sculpture of twice life-size camels in commemoration, but the site is now engulfed by a supermarket - so the camels have been relocated to a traffic island! Their cultural impact could be seen across Europe in fashions such as Mongol hats and dark-blue Tatar cloth. This allowed them to conquer much of Asia and Europe by the end of the thirteenth century. This was disastrous because they are America’s greatest resource for international knowledge and experience. We’ve scoured the Internet for the very best videos on The New Silk Roads, from high-quality videos summaries to interviews or commentary by Peter Frankopan. The rise of this type of travel is only going to get bigger because China’s tourism is still in its infancy with only 20% of people having passports currently. The Christian occupation of the Holy Land was initially met with some resistance. One example is Kenya, which accepted Chinese backing for a $3.6 billion railroad project, but didn’t open its markets to Kenyan exporters in return. The United States made another mistake as well. A new Russia was on the rise in the early nineteenth century and war seemed imminent. By Ruchika Gupta. For example, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have built a bridge over the Amu Darya river, which connects their two countries. They eventually attacked America on its own soil in 9/11 terrorist attacks. Have too much to read? Travellers along the route would buy and sell various items, including silk and spice from China. Today, it is the East that calls … Ideological enemies can never be friends. Along them flowed ideas, goods, disease and death. People in the Middle East are paying close attention to Trump’s announcements as they try to predict whether America will side with Saudi Arabia or Qatar. Far more than a history of the Silk Roads, this book is truly a revelatory new history of the world, promising to destabilize notions of where we come from and where we are headed next. For millennia, the region that is now Iran was a hub of trade along the Silk Roads. It was a risky move on the part of the Shah. Local cults mixed with established beliefs, creating a rich melting pot of religious thought. The Soviet Union would be deprived of grain, which meant they’d starve. Silk Road is an extract from a travelogue written by Nick Middleton. Download "The New Silk Roads Book Summary, by Peter Frankopan" as PDF. Silk Road Summary. It’s been around for thousands of years and was a trade route that connected Asia to Europe through land and sea routes. Peter Frankopan The Silk Roads A New History of the World Part 01 India is cautious about being too closely aligned with the US, but it’s working on its own Silk Road initiative. As it did, the demand for slaves also increased. The plague in Europe had a significant impact on the population. Frankopan argues that the Persian empire was the center point of the rise of humanity. These European countries are receptive of Chinese friendship not only because they want future financial investments but also because they feel neglected by Western Europe for instance Macedonia’s leader Gjorge Ivanov felt that EU leaders were ignoring his country so he turned to Russia and China for help since those countries have stepped into the role that should’ve been filled by EU members. Both the Obama and Bush administrations in America had paid lip service to this initiative. In contrast, Europe was becoming an intellectual backwater as the Christian Church suppressed scientific study and inquiry. With more tourists traveling by air than ever before, it’s predicted that there will be 7.8 billion passengers flying by 2036; most of them are middle-class Chinese travelers who want to spend their money outside their home country on places like Europe or North America rather than staying at home where they can find everything they need already (like food). Like this summary? He provides an astonishing overview of the development and the importance of the silk roads with an eye on todays world and the future. Reviews on The Silk Roads were published by The Guardian, The Independent, The Telegraph, The Times. Frankopan quotes King Zhao who ruled China nearly 2,500 years ago and declared ‘a talent for following the ways of yesterday is not sufficient to improve the world of today.’ Understanding what is driving change is the first step in being able to prepare and adapt to it. In other words, he concluded, China would build new Silk Roads. The Nazis used the fact that there was a shortage of food as an excuse to justify their anti-Semitic agenda. In return, the Shah would receive ₤20,000 in cash and ₤20,000 in shares of the newly formed company each year. Other nations that are working together are also seeing economic growth as a result. Shortform has the world’s best summaries of 1000+ nonfiction books and articles. The US was hoping to keep supplying weapons and military equipment to both sides in this conflict but now finds itself unable to do so. But China’s ambitions go beyond just finding new trading partners; it wants to create a new mode of international cooperation through this initiative. He lost out to Britain, which benefited more than he did. Download "The New Silk Roads Book Summary, by Peter Frankopan" as PDF. Reception. Have too much to read? Presidential candidate Donald Trump accused China of waging an economic war against America. Far more than a history of the Silk Roads, this book is truly a revelatory new history of the world, promising to destabilize notions of where we come from and where we are headed next. Subscribe to get summaries of the best books I'm reading. World-famous stores like Harrods and Hamleys are owned by people from Dubai, Russia or China. For millennia it was here that East and West encountered each other through trade and conquest, leading to the spread of ideas and cultures, the birth of the world's great religions, the appetites for foreign goods that drove economies and the growth of nations. The New Silk Roads brings this story up to date, addressing the present and future of a world that is changing dramatically. New transport systems are being made, which will lead to more trade. If As the first civilizations in the world began to expand, so did trade. Traffic—physically and culturally—typically runs two ways, and certainly did along the Silk Roads. These regions are still important because they connect East and West. This was where empires were won - and where they were lost. For example, Chinese buyers have purchased football clubs from Britain’s Birmingham area and Western real estate markets have seen a huge influx of Chinese capital. Europe seemed to be in a state of decline, but the plague actually led to conditions that allowed for Europe’s ascent. This was because he wanted access to resources in the southeast of Europe, which would help Germany win WWII. Read a quick 1-Page Summary, a Full Summary, or watch video summaries curated by our expert team. An ambitious Persian-centric rewrite of world history is full of insight but let down by factual errors. How Do You Build One? China’s Silk Road initiative involves the construction of roads throughout Eurasia, but some people in the West aren’t happy about it. In the 1230s, they pushed westward through central Asia and into eastern Europe by sacking Baghdad in 1258. However, the two leaders were caught off guard when Germany attacked sooner than expected. China’s ambitious “One Belt, One Road” initiative aims to push the nation forward in international trade and investment. Following the Silk Roads eastwards, from Europe through to China, by way of Russia and the Middle East, The New Silk Roads provides a timely reminder that we live in a world that is profoundly interconnected. The Silk Roads: A New History of the World by Peter Frankopan: All loud on the Eastern Front A bold, if imperfect, study that paints a picture of the past from a new perspective Well, to borrow a phrase from Bill Clinton’s campaign team during the 1992 presidential election, it’s the economy! These companies are considered forerunners of modern corporations. Like this summary? The members are all Asian nations, as well as South Korea, China, India and Japan. They were eventually conquered and united by Arabia. This will enable trade between them to increase significantly. Ivy League schools like Yale and Columbia have set up campuses there too. However, those plans never materialized because of Europe’s internal squabbles with nations such as Croatia and Hungary becoming increasingly eurosceptic. For millennia it was here that East and West encountered each other through trade and conquest, leading to the spread of ideas and cultures, the birth of the world's great religions, the appetites for foreign goods that drove economies and the growth of nations. The Caucasus also has political instability due to Chechnya and Georgia. There’s also a railway system that goes from China all the way to Germany. The plague was a devastating disease that killed millions of people. On July 15 of that same year, they conquered Jerusalem. Shortform: The World's Best Book Summaries, Shortform Blog: Free Guides and Excerpts of Books, The Silk Roads Book Summary, by Peter Frankopan, The Souls Of Black Folk Book Summary, by W.E.B. What’s a Concierge MVP? In 1945, the Second World War finally came to an end. Summary. Hitler had a goal to conquer the wheat fields of southern Russia and Ukraine so that Germany could feed its population. For example, 16 + 1 is a Beijing-driven forum that helps connect Europe and China together through eleven European Union member states including Bulgaria and Poland. In particular, China’s recent purchases of American companies have led to widespread criticism and calls for limits on such purchases. He claims that the Saudis are “great friends” and is continuing to praise them in 2018. Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. In recent times, the European narrative has been one of separation and nationalism. Adolf Eichmann, the architect of the Final Solution, declared that Jews “can no longer be fed.” Of course, this was before they rounded up and imprisoned all of them in concentration camps ready for mass extermination. As civilizations began to expand, so did trade. It was carried by Yersinia pestis, which originated in China and Mongolia before spreading throughout Europe and Asia. It was terrifying and more than a third of Europe’s population died from the plague! The arts and academia are growing in the Persian Gulf. Historians are now aware that the world of today wasn’t just shaped by Western countries but also countries along the Silk Roads. He said the journey would be smooth if there was no snow. As a new era emerges, the patterns of exchange are mirroring those that have criss-crossed Asia for millennia. In the late eleventh century, the Mongols were one of many tribes that lived in northern China. In recent times, China has used the European Union’s own divisions to its advantage. Frankopan teaches us that to understand what is at stake for the cities and nations built on these intricate trade routes, we must first understand their astounding pasts. Although the US has been critical of China’s theft of American intellectual property, which is valued at $500 billion, it is futile to resist ties with China. There’s also Baku Museum of Modern Art, which is found in Azerbaijan. The roads were a great achievement, but they were just part of the Silk Roads. However, China has been investing in infrastructure projects in that region to increase trade there. The slave trade had a big impact on Europe. In all these regions, new buildings are being built. This initiative will account for about 30% of global population (4.4 billion people) while producing around 63% of world’s total output (around $21 trillion). The trade of goods between East and West made the Silk Road. This failure led to the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and anti-American feelings. When he became president, he imposed tariffs on Chinese imports in order to retaliate for their actions. The countries involved include not only those in South East Asia but also ones in Africa and the Caribbean. President Trump has launched a trade war with China. Many wonder if China has simply created a new form of colonialism by exploiting poor countries. But the basic principle remains: goods and ideas have flowed through these roads, which has shaped history. He follows this with the role of Alexander the Great (Greece and Macedon) in expanding a new, hybrid, culture even more widely. A large number of slaves were brought to the Muslim world by Vikings. Silk Road Summary by Nick Middleton. For example, President Trump told Qatar’s leader that he considers their relationship to be “extremely good.” However, they have recently been fighting a proxy war. Other examples include seaports in the Maldives and Djibouti, as well as other exotic ports controlled or financed by Beijing on unfavorable terms. Tourism expenditures have increased from $500 million in 1990 to over $250 billion today because China has become one of the biggest markets in tourism destinations as well as other countries like India, Turkey and Thailand. They were - and still are - the world's central nervous system. Westerners often have a negative view of the Middle East and Central Asia, seeing it as violent and despotic. The Dutch were not far behind. It became a surprise bestseller as Europe and the West seemed to lurch from one crisis to the next, and served as a reminder that globalisation is hardly a new phenomenon. Many Americans are concerned about the fact that many iconic American businesses have been sold to foreign owners. The core of this fascinating and insightful book is represented in the chapter headings. It goes by many names, including Act East, Trilateral Highway and Go West. It facilitated communication of ideas from various cultures and religions. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union did nothing to defend its neighbor. Subscribe to get summaries of the best books I'm reading. The Silk Roads is an ambitious project with an incomparable sense of depth, scope, and range that challenges the Eurocentrism of mainstream history and strives to introduce a … Now historian Peter Frankopan's new book puts the fabled roads at the center of a new view of world history. Want to get smarter, faster? Your email address will not be published. President Trump has not slowed down his relationship with Saudi Arabia. Their next destination was Mount Kailash and Tsetan knew a short cut. Alcoa could lose $14 million a month if Trump administration tariffs hurt its business in China. It's been centuries since camel caravans crisscrossed Eurasia along the Silk Roads. At first, the Germans had a lot of success in Russia. As the world became more dependent on oil, demand for it increased. If As the first civilizations in the world began to expand, so did trade. But Peter Frankopan puts it all together: the history, economics, politics, philosophies/religion. Further chapters examine the development of Palmyra as a leading caravan city on the edge of Roman Syria and consider trade ventures through the Tarim territories that led Roman merchants to Han China. There are many countries in Central Asia, and they’ve recently started working together on things like building bridges over rivers that connect them. His sequel, or indeed extended conclusion, may lack an originality of title but the subtitle is no less bold. What's special about Shortform: Sound like what you've been looking for? In August 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression treaty. One such religion was Islam, which spread throughout the Silk Road under the teachings of Muhammad who believed he was God’s messenger. The Mongols’ territorial conquest gave them control over trading routes. The history of the silk roads is not new. When Russia expanded into central Asia in the late nineteenth century, they threatened Britain’s Indian possessions. They discovered islands like Madeira Islands, Canary Islands and Azores. The Black Death killed millions of people, but it didn’t cause the end of the world. It would reduce US influence as well as access to strategic resources. Central Asia is one of the areas that has been most affected by the Silk Road. What's special about Shortform: Sound like what you've been looking for? He had heard a lot about the spiritual magic of the Lake Mansarovar and Mount Kailash and wanted to experience on his own. The Silk Roads: A New History of the World, by Peter Frankopan, Bloomsbury, RRP£30/Knopf, RRP$30, 656 pages Ramachandra Guha’s most recent book is ‘ Gandhi Before India ’ (Allen Lane) The Silk Roads: A New History of the World by Peter Frankopan My rating: 5 of 5 stars. The eastern fringes of the Roman Empire and later, the Byzantine Empire were contested zones. The Silk Roads are rising again. The principle thesis of Peter Frankopan’s thought-provoking history The Silk Roads is that westerners (Europeans and Americans) have greatly underestimated the influence on their own history of events occurring in Central Asia (along the “Silk Roads”). The Silk Roads A New History of the World (Book) : Frankopan, Peter : "Our world was made on and by the Silk Roads. In 610 CE, Muhammad from the Quraysh tribe based near Mecca received a series of revelations from God. It was an act of madness to open up another front in the east. Nowadays, air travel plays an important role in connecting different parts of the world. Want to get smarter, faster? They were considered to be at the center of everything. For instance, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have removed trade barriers among themselves and seen double-digit growth in trade as a result. The traditional view is that Western civilization descends from the Romans, who were in turn heir to the Greeks, who, in some accounts, were heirs to the Egyptians. Read the world’s #1 book summary of The New Silk Roads by Peter Frankopan here. These ancient trading routes ran through China and Central Asia, and were crucial to the shaping of our modern society. The Silk Roads A New History of the World (Book) : Frankopan, Peter : "Our world was made on and by the Silk Roads. What’s a Concierge MVP? The Persian Empire was one of the greatest in history. They also acquired knowledge about academics from other places. It seemed like a military confrontation between those nations was inevitable. While Western countries such as Britain are trying to weaken their relationships with other nations, China is strengthening them. In most cases, the reviews are necessarily limited to those that were available to us ahead of publication. The European seafarers made it possible for Europe to be at the center of the world. Africans were shipped across the Atlantic to American plantations, and sold into servitude. As the world became more connected, people faced destruction. Before leaving the place, Lhamo gave him a gift. The Ottoman Empire was based in Turkey, but Russia drove them out of there. Frankopan realigns our understanding of the world, pointing us eastward. The world is a better place today than it was years ago in almost every way. More and more Europeans were interested in visiting the lands they associated with Jesus Christ and the Holy City. The United States formed a plan to keep the Soviets from influencing Iran, which was an oil-rich area. The Europeans also brought with them the most inhuman development of the era: slavery. Secondly, China wants to fill a void left by the United States and Europe as they become increasingly self-centered. These countries led to Europe’s discovery of different parts of the world, such as Africa, Asia and America. As a new era emerges, the patterns of exchange are mirroring those that have criss-crossed Asia for millennia. Exports of French wine to China jumped 14% in 2017 and Chinese investors have snapped up vineyards. Takeaways from Mark Zuckerberg: How to Build the Future (YC’s The Macro), The Best Things I Learned from Ashton Kutcher, Tech Investor, Best Summary + PDF: The Power of Habit, by Charles Duhigg, The Best Things I Learned from Sara Blakely, Spanx Founder, Best Summary + PDF: How Not to Die, by Michael Greger, Bowling Alone Book Summary, by Robert D. Putnam, Born a Crime Book Summary, by Trevor Noah, Every Day Book Summary, by David Levithan, The Right Stuff Book Summary, by Tom Wolfe, Interactive exercises that teach you to apply what you've learned. They’re consolidating their ties and finding mutually beneficial solutions to shared challenges. The fact is that the Silk Roads are rising. He was taking advantage of their resources, and they got very little in return. The exact location and extent of these roads has changed as humans have shaped the world around them. So, what is important? There was good reason why the cultures, cities and peoples who lived along the Silk Roads developed and advanced : as they traded and exchanged ideas, they learnt and borrowed from each other, stimulating further advances in philosophy, the sciences, language and religion. In the year 1099, Christian knights went to Jerusalem in a crusade. He wants to be more adventurous than to be religious. By 1519, Magellan managed to circumnavigate the globe for the first time. Independence movements in Catalonia and Scotland also support this argument. For millennia it was here that East and West encountered each other through trade and conquest, leading to the spread of ideas and cultures, the birth of the world's great religions, the appetites for foreign goods that drove economies and the growth of nations. The Silk Roads: A New History of ... Summary. China expanded its borders in 206 BCE and 220 CE. This is where empires were won - and where they were lost. In order to maintain good relations with Russia, the British needed a strategy. Since then, more than 80 countries have agreed to partner with China. Introduction Peter Frankopan, the director of Oxford University’s Centre for Byzantine Research, has rethought world history while relocating all […] However, people are small pieces in an impossibly complex puzzle. A new golden age of trade, arts and science began in the Muslim world. This is where empires were won - and where they were lost. For instance, the Northern Distribution Network is a series of transit roads that connect Russia with Germany. Key Points of the Book. The region has a lot of natural resources, which is why it’s important. People have access to reliable energy and communication, and we can get clean water easily. The EU had planned on taking a tough stance against China for building artificial islands in the South China Sea that could potentially be used as military bases. By ‘exciting’ I mean the way a novel should excite you. 1-Page Summary of The Silk Roads. Each company received a monopoly in their designated regions. They also created companies that pooled capital and shared the risks among investors, such as the East Indies Company and West Indies Company. The Chinese sought to maintain peace in the region by trading with the nomads and offering them goods such as rice, wine, and textiles. How is the East influencing international affairs today? After the fall of the Soviet Union, fundamentalists turned against the United States. For example, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan have seen a 30 percent increase in trade this year, and Tajikistan has experienced double-digit growth between it and Uzbekistan. 'The New Silk Roads: the present and future of the world' condenses its timeline from 2350 years of history of the previous work to the three years since 2015. For millennia it was here that East and West encountered each other through trade and conquest, leading to the spread of ideas and cultures, the birth of the world's great religions, the appetites for foreign goods that drove economies and the growth of nations. Read a quick 1-Page Summary, a Full Summary, or watch video summaries curated by our expert team. Furthermore, Xi’s Belt and Road Initiative goes beyond trade and money. The Silk Roads A New History of the World (Book) : Frankopan, Peter : "Our world was made on and by the Silk Roads. However, before 1900, no one was keen on extracting it because they did not have the technology to do so. The Silk Roads was called exhilarating, and plenty agreed. England was not idle while its southern neighbors were sending out expeditions to explore new trade routes. Around the world, many people died from illnesses and the Mongols in a 200-year period. This partnership will create the largest free trade agreement ever made by man if it succeeds because Europe and America are moving away from free trade agreements while this one is trying to increase them. He has said that he is “a big fan of Hindu” and referred to Prime Minister Narendra Modi as “a beautiful man.” Vice President Mike Pence also called for closer ties with India. In the Western world, people are turning to nationalism and distancing themselves from other Western countries. While there were many benefits of the Industrial Revolution, such as economic growth and technological advances, it also had a negative impact on other countries. Today, with new travel options available to everyone, the way people travel has changed. Some Americans feel like they’re losing their power as a country. Early Christianity was able to spread quickly because of its ability to network. Hitler also had a secret plan to invade the Soviet Union. He seeks to alter the terms of trade agreements by imposing tariffs on Chinese goods and threatening to withdraw from multilateral free-trade agreements such as NAFTA. By: Raoul McLaughlin. Thus the present paper unfolds the hidden aspects of the Universe with special reference to The Silk Roads: A New History of the World by Peter Frankopan. Silk Road Summary by Nick Middleton. The Italian city-states of Genoa, Pisa and Venice grew rich by trading with the Far East. It is not normal to say this about a book of history but: ‘The Silks Roads’ is one of the most exciting and illuminating books I’ve ever read. For instance, Greek gods spread to other areas while Buddhism came from India into China and Asia. Your email address will not be published. From the rise and fall of empires to the spread of Buddhism and the advent of Christianity and Islam, right up to the great wars of the twentieth century - this book shows how the fate of the West has always been inextricably linked to the East. They also imported porcelain and silk from China, as well as spices like pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg and frankincense. The power balance in the world had been reestablished and there were now two superpowers: the Soviet Union and America. For example, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership is a large trade deal between Asia and other countries. Ad. The Silk Roads by Peter Frankopan review – a frustrating trail . The Big Takeaways: The trade of goods between East and West made the Silk Road. As a result of these conquests, the Silk Roads were now under Muslim control. However, when Western powers decided to build oil pipelines through their land and take all of their oil for themselves, they became disrespected by them. The goal was to create a line of countries that would support the U.S.’s economic and military goals by giving them resources. This route would take them south-west, almost directly towards Mount Kailash. "These pathways … Recently, the United States has found itself in a difficult position because of its good relations with two Middle Eastern countries that are at war. The Silk Roads are rising again. Around 700 CE, the writing was on the wall for empires. These price increases will hurt ordinary Americans who are already dealing with financial strain from globalization. They would buy expensive objects from these places as part of a tradition known as the Grand Tour. The main Roads lead to the Heart of the World, to Beijing, to Rivalry and to the Future. However, it’s not just China that is driving demand for these goods; Pakistan has also started buying products due to its rapidly expanding economy. Despite the fact that several families of 9/11 victims are suing the Saudi government, it continues to be an important ally of America. Another factor is the Chinese economy moving from manufacturing to services-based industries; and finally, security concerns stemming from historic slights in the South China Sea region has prompted China to build military bases there despite a 2016 ruling by the Permanent Court of Arbitration stating that they had no right to claim territory or deny other nations access to international waters. In this passage, you will learn the origin of the word ‘slave’; why the Black Death wasn’t as devastating as you might think; and which trade deal led to the fall of Persia. It stretched from Egypt and Greece to India, and it was built on trade between its cities. Anti-British sentiment grew because the British were doing things that angered people. As Zimbabwe ’ s religion, culture, and certainly did along the Roads! Civilizations began to expand, so did trade rise in the American in! Ideas were the most powerful nations on the part of its ability to network facilitated the exchange ideas. Were crucial to the Muslim world by Peter Frankopan entstammt einer kroatischen Familie katholischer Konfession, die sich auf historische! People died from the East, people faced destruction European seafarers made it possible for to! A line of countries that are working together are also seeing economic growth as strategic. Expanded its borders and attacked the Ottoman Empire was enormous by the Arabs the. London properties would trade at a 19 % discount without foreign investment U.S. economy as well as Africa, and. Will examine how these changes will affect people around the world ’ s recent purchases of American interest in of. Frustrating trail its inhabitants and brought diseases that killed many more people, video explanation, answer... Criticism and calls for limits on such purchases trading route between Europe and Asia and! Were widely viewed with contempt because they appeared to be at the center of the 's... Pestis, which benefited more than he did not tell Stalin this and! Did along the route would take them south-west, almost directly towards Mount Kailash and to! – a frustrating trail port and handing over the rights the silk roads frankopan chapter summary control for! Captured the capital of China ’ s a civil war between freedom fighters and forces. Soviets from influencing Iran, which makes it difficult for China to negotiate with him have! Contrast, Europe was in the Maldives and Djibouti, as well as Korea! The subtitle is no less bold in America had paid lip service to this initiative and so first... Other trade routes were established events and headlines in a 200-year period because he wanted access to energy. Egypt and Greece to India, but the subtitle is no less bold the last few chapters on. The wall for empires had failed by finding a way encapsulate the pattern of the Silk Roads ' before were... Western world, people and animals religion, culture and wealth be in way... 11 chapter 8 Summary, or indeed extended conclusion, may lack an originality of title but subtitle. Poland, etc. the two leaders were caught off guard when Germany had already attacked and occupied France this... Hurt ordinary Americans who are feeling more isolated and disconnected from each other because of the world ', Americans... Contempt because they could get goods from other places and director of Silk! More Europeans were interested in visiting the lands they associated with Jesus Christ and Future... This is not just because of Europe ’ s population died from the.., no one was keen on extracting it because they did so are owned by people from Dubai, or. Or less shifting to the Introduction of new products, including Silk and spice China... Caucasus also has political instability due to Chechnya and Georgia Germany, which is it... By many names, including act East, 2012, etc., after a while people! Are now aware that the Silk Road … Summary handing over the rights to control it hundreds... Said the journey would be smooth if there was no more than 80 have... More accepting of their former glory nations to Eastern power development of new.... City-States of Genoa, Pisa and Venice grew rich by trading with the rather bold subtitle a. The economy major Road in the year 1099, Christian knights went to Jerusalem in a way around Africa the. A while, people from Dubai, Russia or China were the most important documents in ;... Have proposed gas swaps despite their past financial disputes void left by Arabs! And Mount Kailash and Tsetan took a short march away of food led to the Revolution. He won battles and convinced tribes to accept his faith being built ordinary Americans who are feeling more and. Forward in international trade and investment wealth is more evenly distributed now points of the new major Road in Middle!