Having been united previous to its separation, the fact of its subsequent separation proves the subsequence also of the man who effected the separation. Based on the arguments Irenaeus made in support of only four authentic gospels, some interpreters deduce that the fourfold Gospel must have still been a novelty in Irenaeus's time. [26], In his Easter letter of 367, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of the books that would become the twenty-seven-book NT canon,[27] and he used the word "canonized" (Greek: κανονιζόμενα kanonizomena) in regard to them. He had developed the custom or writing a circular letter each Easter. University of America Press, 2002) 74–5, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPamphilic._330 (, Kalin, Everett R. "The New Testament Canon of Eusebius". 96), together with some form of the "words of Jesus"; but while Clement valued these highly, he did not refer to them as "Scripture" ("graphe"), a term he reserved for the Septuagint. Marcion's list and theology were rejected as heretical by the early church; however, he forced other Christians to consider which texts were canonical and why. Bourgel, Jonathan, "Do the Synoptic Narratives of the Passion Contain a Stratum Composed in Judea on the Eve of the Great Revolt? It is difficult to determine the date of composition; commentaries and reference books have placed 2 Peter in almost every decade from AD 60 to 160.[50]. Acts 21:21 records a rumor that Paul aimed to subvert the Old Testament (against this rumor see Romans 3:8, 3:31). The Development of the New Testament Canon. The Syriac Peshitta, used by all the various Syriac Churches, originally did not include 2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude and Revelation (and this canon of 22 books is the one cited by John Chrysostom (~347–407) and Theodoret (393–466) from the School of Antioch). [93][94][95] This is an excerpt from Metzger's translation:[96]. While the fragment is interesting to scholars, it sheds little light on the process of canonization. As holy spirit the Son dwells in the flesh; this human nature is God's adopted son" in, Patrick W. Carey, Joseph T. Lienhard (editors), Kruger, Michael. A timeline for the formation of the bible in what we know it as today. [120], Pope Damasus's commissioning of the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible to Jerome,[4] c. 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West. In the first list he included 22 of the pieces of literature now found in the New Testament. 46–47)". Likewise by 200 the Muratorian fragment shows that there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to what is now the New Testament, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them. 1:1), indicates that he himself believed that Jesus was always God. But Irenaeus's own work, including his citing of the Gospel of John (Jn. The Ethiopian "narrow" canon includes 81 books altogether: The 27 book New Testament; those Old Testament books found in the Septuagint and accepted by the Orthodox; as well as Enoch, Jubilees, 2 Esdras, Rest of the Words of Baruch and 3 books of Meqabyan (these three Ethiopian books of Maccabees are entirely different in content from the four Books of Maccabees known elsewhere). Today, the official lectionaries followed by the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, with headquarters at Kottayam (India), and the Chaldean Syrian Church, also known as the Church of the East (Nestorian), with headquarters at Trichur (India), still present lessons from only the 22-books of the original Peshitta. But Hermas wrote the Shepherd very recently... And therefore it ought indeed to be read; but it cannot be read publicly to the people in church. [A list of books of the Old Testament ...] And our sacred books, that is, of the New Testament, are the four Gospels, of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; the fourteen Epistles of Paul; two Epistles of Peter; three of John; one of James; one of Jude; two Epistles of Clement; and the Constitutions dedicated to you, the bishops, by me, Clement, in eight books, which is not appropriate to make public before all, because of the mysteries contained in them; and the Acts of us, the Apostles.—(From the Latin version. The third list included The Revelation (and it was on the first list, too!) Hermas taught that Jesus was not himself a divine being, but a virtuous man who was subsequently filled with the Holy Spirit and adopted as the Son[77][78] (a doctrine called adoptionism). A chart that demonstrates the different councils, Canons, translations, and individuals and their views on what the New Testament was at the time. A second council was held at the Synod of Hippo (393) reaffirming the previous council list. He spread his beliefs widely; they became known as Marcionism. No one else we know of would be a good candidate, certainly not the essentially fictive Luke, Timothy, and Onesimus. A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Synod of Carthage (397) and Council of Carthage (419). In the absence of a canonical list, the resolution of questions would normally have been directed through the see of Constantinople, in consultation with Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea (who was given the commission), and perhaps other bishops who were available locally. 397 Council of Carthage establishes orthodox New Testament canon (27 books) c. 400 Jerome translates the Bible into Latin; this “Vulgate” becomes standard of medieval church ENGLISH VERSIONS FROM LATIN c. 650 Caedmon, a monk, puts Bible books into verse Sola scriptura is one of the five solas, considered by some Protestant groups to be the theological pillars of the Protestant Reformation. […] it is proper to sum up the writings of the New Testament which have been already mentioned. The list probably originated in North Africa soon after the middle of the 4th century. [64][65] Justin quotes the letters of Paul, 1 Peter, and Acts in his writings.[66]. These comprised ten of the Pauline epistles (without the Pastorals) and a gospel similar to that of Luke. The 2nd part is a canon catalogue, and the 5th part is a catalogue of apocryphal writings which are to be rejected. [edit] It contains twenty-two works now in the New Testament, but is also includes works that the church later abandoned as authoritative. The Canon of the New Testament, an essay by F. F. Bruce. [146], Pope Pius XI on June 2, 1927, decreed the Comma Johanneum was open to investigative scrutiny. [4] Purporting to date from a "Council of Rome" under Pope Damasus I in 382, the so-called "Damasian list" which some attributed to the Decretum Gelasianum[121] gives a list identical to what would be the Canon of Trent,[27] and, though the text may in fact not be Damasian, it is at least a valuable 6th century compilation.[122][123]. [4], The Eastern Churches had, in general, a weaker feeling than those in the West for the necessity of making a sharp delineation with regard to the canon. the teaching authority, has equal position and linked together with Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture, each acts in its own way for the goodness of the Church. A Finalized Canon. Yet, church history shows that there was an early consensus about the New Testament canon. 322     Eusebius of Cæsaria’s Ecclesiastical History. by Matt Slick The New Testament canon … They "call[ed] Sacred Scripture all those [books] which Cyril collected from the Synod of Laodicea, and enumerated, adding to Scripture those which he foolishly and ignorantly, or rather maliciously, called Apocrypha; specifically, [List of deuterocanonical books...]. 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[136] Catholicism considers the Magisterium, i.e. [29] These councils were under the authority of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed. Together with the Peshitta and Codex Alexandrinus, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles.[108]. He writes: The canon of the New Testament, as commonly received at present… The Synod of Jerusalem of 1672 made no changes to the New Testament canon for any Orthodox, but resolved some questions about some of the minor Old Testament books for the Greek Orthodox and most other Orthodox jurisdictions (who chose to accept it). The word came to mean “authority” or “rule” when means of measurement, such as the span or the cubit, were transferred from a physical human authority or rule (e.g., a king) were marked on a reed or a stick. The Canon of the New Testament. 5. Thus, some claim that, from the 4th century, there existed unanimity in the West concerning the New Testament canon,[37] and that, by the 5th century, the Eastern Church, with a few exceptions, had come to accept the Book of Revelation and thus had come into harmony on the matter of the canon. 4) recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. McDonald & Sanders 2002, Appendix D-2, notes the following list of New Testament books from Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 350) from his Catechetical Lectures 4.36: Gospels (4), Acts, James, 1–2 Peter, 1–3 John, Jude,[109] Paul's epistles (14), and Gospel of Thomas listed as pseudepigrapha. [Wolfram] Kinzig suggests that it was Marcion who usually called his Bible testamentum [Latin for testament]. The New Testament has several divisions. In his Easter letter of 367, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of exactly the same books that would formally become the New Testament canon,[10] and he used the word "canonized" (kanonizomena) in regard to them. Athanasius was the bishop of Alexandria who came to prominence at the Council of Nicæa in 325 in a dispute over Arianism, declared by the council to be a heretical. First, the Gospels, they reveal the life, ministry, and teachings of Jesus the Messiah. He developed three criteria (click and scroll down to 3.25.6) that seemed to come into play for accepting pieces of literature: (1) apostolicity—did the literature come from the pen or witness of an apostle? The disputation perhaps attributed to Origen[104] (see also Pamphili c. 330, 3.24.17–18 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPamphilic._330 (help)). The list of canonical books, Canon 60, sometimes attributed to the Council of Laodicea is a later addition according to most scholars and has a 22-book OT and 26-book NT (excludes Revelation). Vaticanam 1927, pp. They were more conscious of the gradation of spiritual quality among the books that they accepted (e.g. All Dates are Approximate. (On Christian Doctrines 2.12, chapter 8). Chapter 3 in The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? The New Testament canon developed, or evolved, over the course of the first 250-300 years of Christian history. New Testament Period (c. 35-90) In this period there is little formal sense of a canon of Scripture ***** Apostolic Fathers (90-160) Summary: The New Testament is … Irenaeus (died c. 202) quotes and cites 21 books that would end up as part of the New Testament, but does not use Philemon, Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 3 John and Jude. (5th edition; Leicester: Intervarsity Press, 1959). First then must be put the holy quaternion of the Gospels; following them the Acts of the Apostles... the epistles of Paul... the epistle of John... the epistle of Peter... After them is to be placed, if it really seem proper, the Apocalypse of John, concerning which we shall give the different opinions at the proper time. However, these books have never been printed or widely studied. [29] These councils were convened under the authority of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed. In the late 4th century Epiphanius of Salamis (died 402) Panarion 29 says the Nazarenes had rejected the Pauline epistles and Irenaeus Against Heresies 26.2 says the Ebionites rejected him. The process that culminated in the collection of these pieces of literature in the order now found in the majority of the English-speaking world spans nearly 400 years. [72] He mentions the four gospels, Acts, the Pauline epistles with the exception of Hebrews and Philemon, as well as the first epistle of Peter, and the first and second epistles of John, and the book of Revelation. Translation from B. J. Bruce, Origen: Homilies on Joshua (FOC 105; Washington: Catholic It has recently been suggested that Origen (c. 184 – c. 253) has an identical or nearly identical canon to that of Athanasius in 367. However, upon the whole it is probably of South Gallic origin (6th century), but several parts can be traced back to Pope Damasus and reflect Roman tradition. The designation "Old Testament" places this part of the canon in relation to the New Testament, the part of the Bible canonical only to Christians. [71] The success of Tatian's Diatessaron in about the same time period is "...a powerful indication that the fourfold Gospel contemporaneously sponsored by Irenaeus was not broadly, let alone universally, recognized. Thus, by the 5th century, both the Western and Eastern churches had come into agreement on the matter of the New Testament canon. It has been established that Herod died in 4 B.C., so Jesus must have been born before. The First Vatican Council on April 24, 1870, approved the additions to Mark (v. 16:9–20), Luke (22:19b–20, 43–44), and John (7:53–8:11), which are not present in early manuscripts but are contained in the Vulgate edition. The letter is the first extant evidence of a New Testament with 27 pieces of literature, but the bishop’s letter had a different arrangement from the current New Testament in the English-speaking world. Let the following books be esteemed venerable and holy by all of you, both clergy and laity. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction. ", In the 2nd and 3rd centuries Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History 6.38 says the Elchasai "made use of texts from every part of the Old Testament and the Gospels; it rejects the Apostle (Paul) entirely"; 4.29.5 says Tatian the Assyrian rejected Paul's Letters and Acts of the Apostles; 6.25 says Origen accepted 22 canonical books of the Hebrews plus Maccabees plus the four Gospels, one epistle of Peter "perhaps also a second, but this is doubtful," the apocalypse of John, by John an "epistle of very few lines; perhaps also a second and third", and the epistles of Paul who "did not so much as write to all the churches that he taught; and even to those to which he wrote he sent but a few lines. Documenta Ecdesiastica Sacrum Scripturam Spectantia, Romae, apud Librarian! New Testament. For the Orthodox, the recognition of these writings as authoritative was formalized in the Second Council of Trullan of 692. History of the Bible: The Making of the New Testament Canon. As the Confession goes on to state, "ancient custom, or rather the Catholic Church, which has delivered to us as genuine the Sacred Gospels and the other Books of Scripture, has undoubtedly delivered these [deuterocanonical books] also as parts of Scripture.... And if, perhaps, it seems that not always have all of these been considered on the same level as the others, yet nevertheless these also have been counted and reckoned with the rest of Scripture, both by Synods and by many of the most ancient and eminent Theologians of the Catholic Church. [84] It survives, damaged and thus incomplete, as a bad Latin translation of an original, no longer extant, Greek text that is usually dated in the late 2nd century,[85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92] although a few scholars have preferred a 4th-century date. In the introduction to his book "Early Christian Writings", Henry Wace stated: A modern divine... could not refuse to discuss the question raised by Marcion, whether there is such opposition between different parts of what he regards as the word of God, that all cannot come from the same author.[59]. 2 A work that deals more with this question of order than most do is William R. Farmer with Denis M. Farkasfalvy, The Formation of the New Testament Canon (New York: Paulist, 1983). 3For the historical developments and factors involved, see esp. In 367 the main topic of the letter was the content  of Christian scripture, Old and New Testaments. Bibliography on the Canon for beginning students. [34] In c. 405, Pope Innocent I sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exsuperius of Toulouse. In the centuries before standardized weights and measures, the handspan (or span) of a ruler would be marked on a reed or stick as an authoritative guide for builders and craftsmen. This timeline is intended to list narrative-based canon media by an in-universe chronology. "[17] Thus, from the 5th century onward, the Western Church was unanimous concerning the New Testament canon.[18]. [34] Pope Damasus I is often considered to be the father of the Catholic canon, since what is thought as his list corresponds to the current Catholic canon. [citation needed] Similarly, the New Testament canons of the Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Egyptian Coptic and Ethiopian Churches all have minor differences. De Jonge, "The New Testament Canon", in, Everett Ferguson, "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon", in, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLindberg2006 (, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFBrakke1994 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFAugustine (. 140: Marcion, a businessman in Rome, taught that there were two Gods: Yahweh, the cruel God of the Old Testament, and Abba, the kind father of the New Testament. Accepted by a new search your daily to syrian antioch, print or devotionals, this chapter formatted for one of john is the elder. ", But it is to be noted that this was simply an affirmation of tradition, not a new canonization. And now that last one comes, the one who said, ‘I think God displays us apostles last’ [1 Cor 4:9], and in fourteen of his epistles, thundering with trumpets, he casts down the walls of Jericho and all the devices of idolatry and dogmas of philosophers, all the way to the foundations.[101]. 2 Peter 3:16 says his letters have been abused by heretics who twist them around "as they do with the other scriptures. [138], Martin Luther was troubled by four books, referred to as Luther's Antilegomena: Jude, James, Hebrews, and Revelation; while he placed them in a secondary position relative to the rest, he did not exclude them. Clarendon Press. "[79][80] In all, Origen's canon is suggested to be identical to that of Athanasius.[81]. [30][31][32] This North African canon reaffirmed at the Council of Trent of 1546. The New Testament is a collection of 27 pieces of literature held sacred by Christians and regarded as a significant document in western culture that has influenced the shape of art, music, literature, politics, society, commerce, and more. [133] The Book of Revelation was not accepted into the Armenian Bible until c. 1200 AD when Archbishop Nerses arranged an Armenian Synod at Constantinople to introduce the text. Sheffield: JSOT, 1992. The Formation of the Canon of the New Testament, an essay by Benjamin Warfield. ISBN: 0198269544: Schneemelcher, Wilhelm, ed. ; (3) endurance or utility—had the piece of literature been broadly used among the churches over time (see 3.25.6). Held in the North African city of Carthage, this synod is the first documented affirmation of the “New Testament” catalogued as the 27 books—in the same order—as found in the commonly-used Christian Bible in the English-speaking world. The apostles of our Christ wrote this. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus may be examples of these Bibles. New Testament. The last book to be accepted universally was the Book of Revelation, though with time all the Eastern Church also agreed. [21][62][63] Scholars are divided on whether there is any evidence that Justin included the Gospel of John among the "memoirs of the apostles", or whether, on the contrary, he based his doctrine of the Logos on it. Christian scholars assert that, when these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, however, they were not defining something new but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church."[30][35][36]. Forty-two years later Athanasius still exerted significant authority over the Church. The Formation of the New Testament Canon, by Stephen Voorwinde. [25] Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the major writings are claimed to have been accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the 3rd century. There may have also been a dispute over the doctrine of the Paraclete. The canon of the New Testament is the set of books many Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ; (2) orthodoxy—did the content of the literature conform to the emerging traditions of the church and, therefore, did it cohere with accepted understandings? Timeline of the New Testament Books John 14:26 - "But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind you of all that I said to you." Marcion may have been the first to have a clearly defined list of New Testament books, though this question of who came first is still debated. Likewise, the length of a ruler’s arm from elbow to the end of the middle finger was marked on a stick as a “cubit” (Latin for “elbow”). The Codex Claromontanus ,[106] c. 303–67,[107] a page found inserted into a 6th-century copy of the Epistles of Paul and Hebrews, has the Old Testament, including Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, 1–2,4 Maccabees, and the New Testament, plus Acts of Paul, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, and Hermas, but missing Philippians, 1–2 Thessalonians, and Hebrews. Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy", "How the Ante-Nicene Church Fathers Preserved the Eyewitness Gospel Accounts", Book 3, chapter XXV: The Divine Scriptures that are accepted and those that are not, "The "Apostolic Canons" (about A.D. 380)", "The Canon of Amphilochius of Iconium (after 394 CE)", "Letter of Innocent I on the Canon of Scripture", "The Longer Catechism of The Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church • Pravoslavieto.com", "Luther's Treatment of the 'Disputed Books' of the New Testament", "Gedruckte Ausgaben der Lutherbibel von 1545", Under Orders: The Autobiography of William Laurence Sullivan, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon&oldid=993047770, Development of the Christian biblical canon, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles that may contain original research from January 2016, All articles that may contain original research, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [105] Pamphili c. 330, 3.3.5 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPamphilic._330 (help) adds further detail on Paul: "Paul's fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed. [6] By the early 3rd century Origen of Alexandria may have been using the same 27 books as in the modern New Testament, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Revelation[7] (see also Antilegomena). Zahn and Harnack were of the opinion that the list had been drawn up originally in Greek at Alexandria or its neighborhood ~300 AD. Chronology of the Apostolic Age and the Development of the New Testament Canon. The first “canon” was the Muratorian Canon, which was compiled in AD 170. Metzger, Bruce M. The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance. Bart D. Ehrman, Ph.D. Delve into a thorough introduction to key issues in the development of Christianity in this course designed by an award-winning professor. Bible > Timeline > New Testament. Among the rejected [Kirsopp. [citation needed], In 331, Constantine I commissioned Eusebius to deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. The final list did not contain any works now regarded as part of the New Testament. [20] The Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 for the Church of England and the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647 for English presbyterians established the official finalizations for those new branches of Christianity in light of the Reformed faith. According to Jülicher the list belongs to the 4th century and is probably of western origin. The Syriac Doctrine of Addai (c. 400) claims to record the oldest traditions of the Syriac Christianity, and among these is the establishment of a canon: members of the church are to read only the Gospel (meaning the Diatessaron of Tatian), the Epistles of Paul (which are said to have been sent by Peter, from Rome), and the Book of Acts (which is said to have been sent by John the son of Zebedee, from Ephesus), and nothing else. [49], The reference to, presumably the Septuagint, as the "other" Scripture denotes that the author of 2 Peter regarded, at least, the works of Paul that had been written by his time as Scripture. It was his attempt that set in motion the long process in the church that ended with the New Testament we have today. Saved by Joe Aboumoussa. It is not known whether 2 Thessalonians and 2 John were excluded on purpose, or that not a single fragment of either epistle happened to survive. Gallagher, Edmon L. "Origen via Rufinus on the New Testament Canon." 367      Festal Letter 39 (Easter Letter 39) of Athanasius. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. Marcion of Sinope, a bishop of Asia Minor who went to Rome and was later excommunicated for his views, may have been the first of record to propose a definitive, exclusive, unique list of Christian scriptures, compiled sometime between 130–140 AD. The Council of Laodicea, c. 363, was one of the first councils that set out to judge which books were to be read aloud in churches. After the Council of Ephesus, the Church of the East became separated, and retained this canon of only 22-books (the Peshitta) up to the present day. Epistles the Apostolikon by some Protestant groups to be noted that this was simply an affirmation tradition... Of their composition may be … timeline of books canon Bible, timeline of the Protestant.. 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